Čína - zahraničné investície I

Zahraničné investície Číny rástli v priemere 65,5% od roku 2000 - 2005. V roku 2005 Čína v zahraničí investovala US$12,26 mld. a do roku 2010 sa predpokladá US$60 mld.

As China's demand for raw materials increases, Chinese foreign investment has been skyrocketing. China's foreign investment grew on average 65.6 percent from 2000 to 2005. For 2005, Chinese investment in other countries hit US$12.26 billion and is likely to reach US$60 billion by 2010.

The principal destinations for 2005 were Hong Kong (16.5%), the United States (10.3%) and Russia (5.8%).

This money is also used to secure sources of oil and raw material in countries that may be shunned by the United States and/or Europe, such as Sudan, Angola, Zimbabwe, North Korea, Iran, and Cuba.

Chinese companies enjoy several major advantages over Western firms when seeking trade agreements.

  1. China has a strict policy of non-interference in other nations' internal affairs allowing Chinese firms to enter countries where international sanctions restrict activities by US or European firms. This has served China well as it secures resources from authoritarian style governments that the west has criticized or sanctioned. At least China isn't hypocritical.
  2. Chinese firms have access to financing from state-owned banks, which are more willing to back projects where risk-versus-return tradeoffs would seldom appeal to private investors. China's existing projects in Sudan, as well as the preliminary agreement by Sinopec to develop the Yadavaran oilfield in Iran, illustrate this effect.
  3. The Chinese government can make side deals involving foreign aid and arms sales to promote its interest in acquiring raw materials. Sudan is a prime example, as Chinese state-owned arms manufacturers have sold T-59 tanks and Shenyang F-7 combat aircraft in the wake of Chinese development of Sudanese oil resources.
  4. Lack of transparency constitutes another competitive advantage. Western firms have reporting requirements that do not apply to Chinese firms and are often under pressure from their home country governments and investors to keep their transactions with foreign governments transparent. For US firms, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act prohibits some types of side payments that Chinese firms could easily make.

South America and the Panama Canal

Through Hong Kong billionaire, Dr. Li Ka-shing's Panama Ports Company, China controls the ports at either end of the strategic Panama Canal which left US control on Dec 31, 1999. China is interested in potentially widening the Panama Canal to allow for larger Chinese ships to move goods from the Pacific to the Atlantic.

Access through the Panama Canal has been beneficial to China's recent strengthening of diplomatic and economic ties with Latin America as it seeks to gain raw materials to support its manufacturing base.

In 2004, Baosteel signed a framework agreement with Arcelor and Companhia do Rio Doce (CVRD) to build an integrated steel plant in Brazil for an expected US$1.5 billion. There are current plans between Sinopec and Brazilian Petrobras to build a 2,000 km natural gas pipeline backed by an US$10 billion energy deal.

China has entered trade and infrastructure agreements with Cuba. In 2005, Sinopec signed a shared-production agreement for prospecting and exploiting crude oil with Cubapetroleo. In 2006, China announced it would invest US$500 million in Cuba's in nickel industry.

Especially important for China is oil-rich Venezuela. As relations between Venezuela and the US have soured, China has been quick to move in. In 2005, China announced it would invest US$400 million in Venezuela's infrastructure, including oil and gas fields as well as railway and refinery infrastructure. In August of 2005, Caracas purchased three military grade radar systems from Beijing.

Jamaica is China's biggest trading partner in the English-speaking Caribbean countries and an important source of bauxite ore for China's aluminium demand.

Source: GoldE


"The world is governed by self interest only. ." Johann Friedrich Von Schiller